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New Research in Neuropsychologia

Congratulations to Francesca, Giovanni, Monica, David, Mariaelisa, David, Giovanni, Concetta whose latest paper has just been accepted in Neuropsychologia!

Tinelli, F., Anobile, G., Gori, M., Aagten-Murphy, D., Bartoli, M., Burr, D. C., et al. Time, number and attention in very low birth weight children,Neuropsychologia, 2015 PDF

Premature birth has been associated with damage in many regions of the cerebral cortex, although there is a particularly strong susceptibility for damage within the parieto-occipital lobes (Volpe, 2009). As these areas have been shown to be critical for both visual attention and magnitudes perception (time, space, and number), it is important to investigate the impact of prematurity on both the magnitude and attentional systems, particularly for children without overt white matter injuries, where the lack of obvious injury may cause their difficulties to remain unnoticed. In this study, we investigated the ability to judge time intervals (visual, audio and audio-visual temporal bisection), discriminate between numerical quantities (numerosity comparison), map numbers onto space (numberline task) and to maintain visuo-spatial attention (multiple-object-tracking) in school-age preterm children (N29). The results show that various parietal functions may be more or less robust to prematurity-related difficulties, with strong impairments found on time estimation and attentional task, while numerical discrimination or mapping tasks remained relatively unimpaired. Thus while our study generally supports the hypothesis of a dorsal stream vulnerability in children born preterm relative to other cortical locations, it further suggests that particular cognitive processes, as highlighted by performance on different tasks, are far more susceptible than others.

New Research in Journal of Vision

Congratulations to Giovanni, Marco T., Marco C. and David, whose latest paper has just been accepted in Journal of Vision!

Anobile, G., Turi, M., Cicchini, G. M. & Burr, D. (2015). Mechanisms for perception of numerosity or texture-density are governed by crowding-like effects,Journal of Vision, 15 (5), 1-12. PDF

We have recently provided evidence that the perception of number and texture density is mediated by two independent mechanisms: numerosity mechanisms at relatively low numbers, obeying Weber’s law, and texture-density mechanisms at higher numerosities, following a square root law. In this study we investigated whether the switch between the two mechanisms depends on the capacity to segregate individual dots, and therefore follows similar laws to those governing visual crowding. We measured numerosity discrimination for a wide range of numerosities at three eccentricities. We found that the point where the numerosity regime (Weber’s law) gave way to the density regime (square root law) depended on eccentricity. In central vision, the regime changed at 2.3 dots/82, while at 158 eccentricity, it changed at 0.5 dots/82, three times less dense. As a consequence, thresholds for low numerosities increased with eccentricity, while at higher numerosities thresholds remained constant. We further showed that like crowding, the regime change was independent of dot size, depending on distance between dot centers, not distance between dot edges or ink coverage. Performance was not affected by stimulus contrast or blur, indicating that the transition does not depend on low-level stimulus properties. Our results reinforce the notion that numerosity and texture are mediated by two distinct processes, depending on whether the individual elements are perceptually segregable. Which mechanism is engaged follows laws that determine crowding.

New Research in Autism Research

Congratulations to David and Murphy, whose latest paper has just been published in Autism Research!

Aagten-Murphy, D., Attucci, C., Daniel, N., Klaric, E., Burr, D. & Pellicano, E. (2015). Numerical estimation in children with autism,Autism Res, PDF

Number skills are often reported anecdotally and in the mass media as a relative strength for individuals with autism, yet there are remarkably few research studies addressing this issue. This study, therefore, sought to examine autistic children's number estimation skills and whether variation in these skills can explain at least in part strengths and weaknesses in children's mathematical achievement. Thirty-two cognitively able children with autism (range = 8-13 years) and 32 typical children of similar age and ability were administered a standardized test of mathematical achievement and two estimation tasks, one psychophysical nonsymbolic estimation (numerosity discrimination) task and one symbolic estimation (numberline) task. Children with autism performed worse than typical children on the numerosity task, on the numberline task, which required mapping numerical values onto space, and on the test of mathematical achievement. These findings question the widespread belief that mathematical skills are generally enhanced in autism. For both groups of children, variation in performance on the numberline task was also uniquely related to their academic achievement, over and above variation in intellectual ability; better number-to-space mapping skills went hand-in-hand with better arithmetic skills. Future research should further determine the extent and underlying causes of some autistic children's difficulties with regards to number. Autism Res 2015. (c) 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

New Research in Developmental Science

Congratulations to David and Monica, whose latest paper has just been published in Developmental Science!

Vercillo, T., Burr, D., Sandini, G. & Gori, M. (2014). Children do not recalibrate motor-sensory temporal order after exposure to delayed sensory feedback,Dev Sci,

Prolonged adaptation to delayed sensory feedback to a simple motor act (such as pressing a key) causes recalibration of sensory-motor synchronization, so instantaneous feedback appears to precede the motor act that caused it (Stetson, Cui, Montague & Eagleman, 2006). We investigated whether similar recalibration occurs in school-age children. Although plasticity may be expected to be even greater in children than in adults, we found no evidence of recalibration in children aged 8-11 years. Subjects adapted to delayed feedback for 100 trials, intermittently pressing a key that caused a tone to sound after a 200 ms delay. During the test phase, subjects responded to a visual cue by pressing a key, which triggered a tone to be played at variable intervals before or after the keypress. Subjects judged whether the tone preceded or followed the keypress, yielding psychometric functions estimating the delay when they perceived the tone to be synchronous with the action. The psychometric functions also gave an estimate of the precision of the temporal order judgment. In agreement with previous studies, adaptation caused a shift in perceived synchrony in adults, so the keypress appeared to trail behind the auditory feedback, implying sensory-motor recalibration. However, school children of 8 to 11 years showed no measureable adaptation of perceived simultaneity, even after adaptation with 500 ms lags. Importantly, precision in the simultaneity task also improved with age, and this developmental trend correlated strongly with the magnitude of recalibration. This suggests that lack of recalibration of sensory-motor simultaneity after adaptation in school-age children is related to their poor precision in temporal order judgments. To test this idea we measured recalibration in adult subjects with auditory noise added to the stimuli (which hampered temporal precision). Under these conditions, recalibration was greatly reduced, with the magnitude of recalibration strongly correlating with temporal precision.

New Research in Trends in Cognitive Science

Congratulations to Paola and Scott , whose latest paper has just been accepted in Trends in Cognitive Science!

Binda, P. & Murray, S. O. (2014). Keeping a large-pupilled eye on high-level visual processing,Trends Cogn Sci, PDF

The pupillary light response has long been considered an elementary reflex. However, evidence now shows that it integrates information from such complex phenomena as attention, contextual processing, and imagery. These discoveries make pupillometry a promising tool for an entirely new application: the study of high-level vision.

New Research in Current Biology

Congratulations to David and Marco, whose latest paper has just been published in Current Biology!

Burr, D. & Cicchini, G. M. (2014). Vision: efficient adaptive coding,Curr Biol, 22 (24), R1096-1098.

Recent studies show that perception is driven not only by the stimuli currently impinging on our senses, but also by the immediate past history. The influence of recent perceptual history on the present reflects the action of efficient mechanisms that exploit temporal redundancies in natural scenes.

New Research in EBR

Congratulations to David and Monica, whose latest paper has just been published in Experimental Brain Research!

Development of context-dependency in human space perception, PDF

Sciutti, A., Burr, D., Saracco, A., Sandini G. & Gori, M.

Perception is a complex process, where prior knowledge exerts a fundamental influence over what we see. The use of priors is at the basis of the well-known phenomenon of central tendency: Judgments of almost all quantities (such as length, duration, and number) tend to gravitate toward their mean magnitude. Although such context-dependency is universal in adult perceptual judgments, how it develops with age remains unknown. We asked children from 7 to 14 years of age and adults to reproduce lengths of stimuli drawn from different distributions and evaluated whether judgments were influenced by stimulus context. All participants reproduced the presented length differently depending on the context: The same stimulus was reproduced as shorter, when on average stimuli were short, and as longer, when on average stimuli were long. Interestingly, the relative importance given to the current sensory signal and to priors was almost constant during childhood. This strategy, which in adults is optimal in Bayesian terms, is apparently successful in holding the sensory noise at bay even during development. Hence, the influence of previous knowledge on perception is present already in young children, suggesting that context-dependency is established early in the developing brain.

New Research in Proceedings of the Royal Society

Congratulations to Roberto
Irene and David, whose latest paper has just been published in Proceedings of the Royal Society!

Arrighi, R., Togoli, I. & Burr, D. C. (2014). A generalized sense of number, Proc R Soc B (2014) PDF

Much evidence has accumulated to suggest that many animals, including young human infants, possess an abstract sense of approximate quantity, a number sense. Most research has concentrated on apparent numerosity of spatial arrays of dots or other objects, but a truly abstract sense of number should be capable of encoding the numerosity of any set of discrete elements, however displayed and in whatever sensory modality. Here, we use the psychophysical technique ofadaptation to study the sense of number for serially presented items. We show that numerosity of both auditory and visual sequences is greatly affected by prior adaptation to slow or rapid sequences of events. The adaptation to visual stimuli was spatially selective (in external, not retinal coordinates), pointing to a sensory rather than cognitive process. However, adaptation generalized across modalities, from auditory to visual and vice versa. Adaptation also generalized across formats: adapting to sequential streams of flashes affected the perceived numerosity of spatial arrays. All these results point to a perceptual system that transcends vision and audition to encode an abstract sense of number in space and in time.

SFX 2014 – Serial effects in perception: prediction, priming and adaptation – Workshop

Pisa, 11th -12th December 2014

Recent studies show that perception is driven not only by the stimuli currently impinging on our senses, but also by the immediate past history. The current studies show that perception most often is dragged towards the past stimulus history. This feature, which is reminiscent of priming, is an optimizing strategy in an environment where things change slowly over time and the future is correlated with the present.

However this opens the question as to when it is beneficial to assume continuity between past and present and when is it beneficial to emphasize any differences between past and present, as occurs with sensory adaptation. The workshop aims at encouraging discussion in the field gathering more than 10 distinguished researchers worldwide. The workshop begins on Thursday the 11th in the afternoon and ends Friday 12th in the evening. The meeting will be hosted in the Seminar room of the Institute of Neuroscience - CNR in Pisa.

Confirmed speakers are:

Geoff Boynton, David Burr, Gianluca Campana, Marco Cicchini, Floris de Lange, József Fiser, Peter Foldiak, Aldo Genovesio, Árni Kristjánsson, Larry Maloney, Pascal Mamassian, Isabelle Mareschal, Lars Muckli, Samuel Solomon, Peter Thompson, David Whitney

Here is the programme (PDF) and the abstract book (PDF)

Here there are a large map and an enlargement of Pisa City Center. A zoomed version of CNR premises can be found here

For travel and accomodation, visit the following links: http://www.pisa-airport.com/ and http://www.hotelleonardopisa.it/azienda.aspx?idm=12&idl=2

Wi-fi connection with Eduroam login will be available on the workshop premises and in the lab.

For any detailed information contact us (David Burr, Guido Marco Cicchini).

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