Mantovani, A., Morrone, M. C., Patrono, C., Santoro, M. G., Schiaffino, S., Remuzzi, G., Bussolati, G. & COVID-19 Commission of Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome
Long Covid: Where we stand and challenges ahead
Cell Death & Differentiation, 29(10)
Post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), also known as Post-Covid Syndrome, and colloquially as Long Covid, has been defined as a constellation of signs and symptoms which persist for weeks or months after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. PASC affects a wide range of diverse organs and systems, with manifestations involving lungs, brain, the cardiovascular system and other organs such as kidney and the neuromuscular system. The pathogenesis of PASC is complex and multifactorial. Evidence suggests that seeding and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in different organs, reactivation, and response to unrelated viruses such as EBV, autoimmunity, and uncontrolled inflammation are major drivers of PASC. The relative importance of pathogenetic pathways may differ in different tissue and organ contexts. Evidence suggests that vaccination, in addition to protecting against disease, reduces PASC after breakthrough infection although its actual impact remains to be defined. PASC represents a formidable challenge for health care systems and dissecting pathogenetic mechanisms may pave the way to targeted preventive and therapeutic approaches.