Rocca, C., Tiberi, L., Bargiacchi, S., Palazzo, V., Landini, S., Marziali, E., Caputo, R., Tinelli, F., Marchi, V., Benedetto, A., Pagliazzi, A., & Bacci, G. M.
Expanding the Spectrum of Oculocutaneous Albinism: Does Isolated Foveal Hypoplasia Really Exist?
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 23(14)
Oculocutaneous albinism is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of typical ocular features, such as foveal hypoplasia, iris translucency, hypopigmented fundus oculi and reduced pigmentation of skin and hair. Albino patients can show significant clinical variability; some individuals can present with only mild depigmentation and subtle ocular changes. Here, we provide a retrospective review of the standardized clinical charts of patients firstly addressed for evaluation of foveal hypoplasia and slightly subnormal visual acuity, whose diagnosis of albinism was achieved only after extensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization. Our report corroborates the pathogenicity of the two common TYR polymorphisms p.(Arg402Gln) and p.(Ser192Tyr) when both are located in trans with a pathogenic TYR variant and aims to expand the phenotypic spectrum of albinism in order to increase the detection rate of the albino phenotype. Our data also suggest that isolated foveal hypoplasia should be considered a clinical sign instead of a definitive diagnosis of an isolated clinical entity, and we recommend deep phenotypic and molecular characterization in such patients to achieve a proper diagnosis.